FAQ

WHAT IS THE REASON FOR THIS PROJECT?

Image-based sexual abuse is a very serious problem, but because the law develops slowly and this is a relatively new phenomenon, laws that should criminalise image-based sexual abuse are either absent or not effective. In 2014 the world was confronted with the first case of mass image-based sexual abuse. In a case now known as ‘the fappening’, over a 100 celebrities were hacked, which drew the attention of some legislators to the fact that there indeed is a problem. But image-based sexual abuse is even more damaging to people who aren’t famous, because they suddenly become known for something that should have remained private. To acknowledge the harm done to victims and to make sure that they have legal options, image-based sexual abuse should be criminalised. The difficulty is, that there often isn’t time to do decent research to determine what should be criminalised, which leads to ineffective laws. The aim of this project is to take away that hurdle: by doing the research thoroughly and properly, it will be much easier to criminalise image-based sexual abuse in a real way.
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WHAT IS IMAGE-BASED SEXUAL ABUSE?

Image-based sexual abuse is an umbrella term for different types of unwanted, public pornography. At least four different types can be recognised:
  • Revenge porn – the publication of private images or films that were made with consent of the depicted person, but disclosed without consent of the depicted person, by the person to whom they were entrusted.
    Example: your ex publishes naked images of you that you took together when you were a couple.
  • Hack porn – the publication of private images or films that were made with consent of the depicted person, but disclosed without consent of the depicted person, by someone other than the person to whom they were entrusted.Example: your computer is hacked and your sexy video is put on a porn site.
  • Non-voluntary pornography – private images or films that were taken or made without consent of the depicted individual and disclosed without consent of the depicted individual.Example: the cameras in the sauna film you whilst you are changing and someone puts it online. Or someone secretly photographs you while you’re sleeping and sends the pictures to your friends.
  • Edited portrayals – sexual images that portray the body of one person, with the head of another person edited on to it. Example: a classmate photoshops your head onto the body of a porn model and spreads these pictures in school.
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WHAT IS REVENGE PORN?

Revenge porn is a very unfortunate term for the publication of private images or films that were made with consent but disclosed by the person to whom they were entrusted without consent of the depicted person. Because revenge pornography suggests that the motive is to take revenge, you might be led into thinking that the victim somehow brought it upon himself, or that any actions that are not done out of revenge could not be revenge porn. The only reason the term revenge porn is used on this site is to be able to distinguish it from other types of image-based sexual abuse.
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WHERE DOES THE RESEARCH TAKE PLACE?

The research taking place as part of this project is conducted at the University of Oxford. I am at Keble College and at the Law Faculty.

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HOW MUCH MONEY IS NEEDED?

To fully undertake this research as planned, €250.000 is needed. A part of this amount is contributed by me, Marthe Goudsmit, but to be able to fund the complete project additional funds are needed. This comes from foundations and organisations associated with the topic of image-based sexual abuse, as well as crowdfunding.

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WHAT WILL THE MONEY BE USED FOR?

The money that comes in is used directly to fund the proposed research. This means that all costs associated with the University of Oxford, costs associated with conventions, and costs of victim- and perpetrator participation studies can be covered.

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WHAT HAPPENS IF MORE MONEY THAN NEEDED IS COLLECTED?

In case more money than is needed for research purposes should be collected, this will be used to set up a lesson programme for teenagers, to increase awareness about image-based sexual abuse and what teenagers can or should do if they are victims or are confronted with image-based sexual abuse of someone else.

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HOW CAN I CONTACT YOU?

If you would like to get in touch, you can do so via info@endnonconsensualporn.com

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